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    Canadian Authors & Publishers: We Demand Education Talk To Us As Long As It Leads to New Payments

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    Friday March 14, 2014
    The Canadian Copyright Institute, an association of authors and publishers, has released a new paper that calls on the Canadian education community to stop relying on its current interpretation of fair dealing and instead negotiate a collective licence with Access Copyright. The paper was apparently published in the fall but is being released publicly now since Canadian education groups have refused to cave to Access Copyright's demands.

    The CCI document, which raises some of the same themes found in an Association of Canadian Publisher's paper that distorts Canadian copyright law (thoroughly debunked by Howard Knopf), features at least three notable takeaways: the shift to threats of government lobbying, long overdue admissions that the value of the Access Copyright licence has declined, and emphasis on arguments that have been rejected by the courts and government. There are also three notable omissions: the fact that the overwhelming majority of copying in schools is conducted with publisher permission, the role of technological neutrality, and the relevance of other copyright exceptions. By the end of the document, the CCI and Access Copyright work to fabricate a new fair dealing test that is inconsistent with Supreme Court of Canada rulings as they call for dialogue so long as it leads to a new collective licence.


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    Canada - South Korea Trade Agreement Demonstrates Deals Possible Without Increasing IP Protections

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    Tuesday March 11, 2014
    Canada and South Korea announced agreement on a comprehensive trade agreement earlier today. The focus is understandably on tariff issues, but the agreement also contains a full chapter on intellectual property (note that the governments have only released summaries of the agreement, not the full text, which is still being drafted). The IP chapter is significant for what it does not include. Unlike many other trade deals - particularly those involving the U.S., European Union, and Australia - the Canada-South Korea deal is content to leave domestic intellectual property rules largely untouched. The approach is to reaffirm the importance of intellectual property and ensure that both countries meet their international obligations, but not to use trade agreements as a backdoor mechanism to increase IP protections.

    Yesterday I noted that Canada might be asked to increase the term of copyright protection given that South Korea had agreed to longer copyright terms in its recent agreements with the European Union, Australia, and the U.S. In fact, the U.S. agreement contains extensive additional side letters on Internet provider liability, enforcement, and online piracy.  The Canada - South Korea deal rejects that approach with copyright, trademark, patent, and enforcement rules that are all consistent with current Canadian law (plus the coming border measures provisions in Bill C-8). 


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    Will the Canada - South Korea Trade Agreement Include Copyright Term Extension?

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    Monday March 10, 2014
    Prime Minister Stephen Harper is currently in South Korea reportedly to finalize agreement on the Canada - South Korea trade agreement. The proposed deal has been the subject of a decade of negotiation with opposition from the auto industry resulting in significant delays. While the focal point of the agreement will be on tariff issues involving the automotive and agricultural sectors, the deal will include an intellectual property chapter. The IP issues have not received any attention (the entire agreement remains secret so discussion has been generally limited), but it is possible that it will require Canada to extend the term of copyright.

    An initial Canadian environmental assessment of the agreement suggested that the IP chapter would simply reaffirm existing IP obligations. If the agreement is limited to reaffirming existing commitments, copyright term will not be touched since Canada meets the international requirement of life of the author plus 50 years.  However, South Korea's recent trade deals with both the European Union and Australia feature a minimum copyright term of life of the author plus 70 years (the Australian deal also includes a requirement for "measures to curtail repeated copyright infringement on the Internet"). Whether the Canadian deal contains a similar provision will be worth monitoring, both for the impact on Canadian copyright law and for the international trade implications such as the Trans Pacific Partnership that is currently under negotiation.
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    Copyright Users' Rights in Canada Hits Ten: The Tenth Anniversary of the CCH Decision

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    Tuesday March 04, 2014
    As Meera Nair noted last week, today marks the tenth anniversary the Supreme Court of Canada's landmark CCH Canadian v. Law Society of Upper Canada. A decade after its release, the case has grown in stature as the leading the users' rights copyright decision by a high court in the world. Writing for a unanimous court, Chief Justice McLachlin stated:

    the fair dealing exception is perhaps more properly understood as an integral part of the Copyright Act than simply a defence. Any act falling within the fair dealing exception will not be an infringement of copyright. The fair dealing exception, like other exceptions in the Copyright Act, is a user's right. In order to maintain the proper balance between the rights of a copyright owner and users' interests, it must not be interpreted restrictively. As Professor Vaver, supra, has explained, at p. 171: 'User rights are not just loopholes. Both owner rights and user rights should therefore be given the fair and balanced reading that befits remedial legislation.'

    The articulation of fair dealing as a users' right represented a remarkable shift, emphasizing the need for a copyright balance between the rights of creators and the rights of users. While this approach unquestionably strengthened fair dealing, the immediate reaction to the CCH was somewhat mixed.

     
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